Above Ground Storage Tank or AST

Above Ground Storage Tank or AST Common Questions

 

Above Ground Storage Tank or AST, like an Underground Storage Tank (UST), contain heating oil for the purpose of heating homes and buildings. There are specific differences between the two tanks and these are some of the most common questions we are asked regarding ASTs.

What is an above ground storage tank or AST?

Homes, apartments, farms and some businesses that are currently or were heated using diesel heating oil, used an above ground storage tank (AST) to store the heating oil. ASTs are most commonly mounted on a stand or a ground pad either outside or in a basement. ASTs can also be partially buried in the ground, usually in a basement or crawlspace.

Since it isn’t underground, do I really need to be worried about an AST?

Yes, even above ground tanks can leak, resulting in contamination of soil and drinking water supplies. Any oil spill can pose a serious threat to human health and the environment, regardless of where the tank is located.

What is the difference between an AST and a UST?

The distinct difference between the two tanks is this:

  • If the tank and its piping is located 10% BELOW ground surface it is considered a UST, anything ABOVE 10% ground surface is considered an AST.
  • Another exception is that, ASTs are not regulated by the DEQ, therefore not governed the same way as a UST.

For example, if a UST is leaking above 50 PPM (parts per million) the contractor is required to report this to the DEQ and is subject to remediation, based on the level of contamination. After the clean-up has been completed, the UST is then decommissioned and registered with the DEQ. This scenario can also be compared for an out of service underground storage tank, once the tank has been decommissioned it can then be registered with the DEQ.

The circumstances for an AST are different. When an AST is or has leaked, is no longer in-service, or the homeowner is switching to a new heat source, the tank can simply be removed, no decommissioning or registration with the DEQ is required. However, like decommissioning an underground storage tank, each AST removal can bring about a different set of considerations.

What to do with an Above Ground Storage Tank AST when decommissioning is not an option

If you don’t decommission and register the AST with the DEQ, what do you do?

First, we would need to determine where is the tank located?

  • Outside the home
Above Ground Storage Tank or AST

Above Ground Storage Tank or AST – Exterior AST secured to concrete pad foundation.

  • In a basement or crawlspace, with a separate exterior access
Above Ground Storage Tank or AST

Above Ground Storage Tank or AST – AST located in basement with exterior access.

  • In a basement or crawlspace, with access through the home only
Above Ground Storage Tank or AST

Above Ground Storage Tank or AST – AST located within a crawlspace, no exterior access. For this AST to be removed, it will need to be cut into pieces.

Regardless of where the above ground storage tank or AST is located on your property, it is very important to have it removed by a licensed contractor with pollution insurance. If the AST is removed by a general contractor, and they usually DO NOT have pollution insurance, and heating oil is spilled in the house or the yard, the homeowner will be left with the clean-up, not the contractor.

Once the location has been determined:

  • All heating oil and sludge are pumped out, the tank removed and disposed of via recycling.
  • Depending if the tank is on the exterior or interior of the home determines if the tank can be removed as one piece or if it will need to be cut into portions and carried out of the home.
  • If applicable, the fill and vent are removed and holes would be patched.
    • Removing or concreting over the fill eliminates the possibility of an accidental fuel re-fill.
Above Ground Storage Tank or AST

Above Ground Storage Tank or AST – AST Vent (the larger pipe) and fill pipe.

When an Above Ground Storage Tank (AST) Leaks

What would cause an AST leak?

There are numerous reasons an AST can leak; improperly secured tanks, tank corrosion, equipment or support failure, overfilling the tank, or it could be as simple as human error.

Above Ground Storage Tank or AST

Above Ground Storage Tank or AST – Tank that has fallen down, if the contents are not pumped out, diesel fuel would be leaked into the yard.

My AST is leaking, what should I do?

  • Place a bucket underneath the tank to catch the release
    • If the AST is within the home, block all floor drains to prevent discharge into a drywell or sewer
  • Call a qualified heating oil tank provider that can respond to and clean-up a leaking tank
    • The AST would be pumped of all residual liquids
    • Clean-up would be performed to remove any heating oil contamination
Above Ground Storage Tank or AST

Above Ground Storage Tank or AST – Leaking AST, small bowl has been placed underneath the leak to catch the heating oil.

PLIA in Washington State

PLIA Insurance Coverage

In 1995 the Washington Legislature added pollution liability coverage for heating oil tanks to PLIAs responsibilities. PLIA in Washington State assists owners of underground storage tanks to provide available and affordable insurance through a state administered reinsurance program. The program was created in response to the rising number of heating oil tank releases and the significant impact contamination had on property values, as well as the environment. When a clean-up has been completed, PLIA will provide homeowners with a Letter of Finding which states that the site has met the clean-up standards defined in the Model Toxics Control Act.

PLIA can also assist homeowners with the following information:

  • Verifying the validity of required declarations of financial responsibility
  • Provide advice and technical assistance regarding liability and clean-up requirements

What is covered when insured through PLIA?

  • Up to $60,000 to clean-up contamination, not covered by other insurance, on your property and/or a neighboring property
  • The contamination must come from a leak that starts after a heating oil tank is registered with PLIA. The tank may be a UST or an AST
  • The tank must be registered in the current owners name
  • Reimbursement up to $1500 to repair damages on neighboring property (third party coverage) such as landscaping, flooring, painting, etc.

What is NOT covered through PLIA?

  • Leaks from abandoned or previously decommissioned tanks
  • Leaks that start before registering with PLIA
  • Property restoration on your property (first party coverage)
  • Removal/repair/replacement of the tank/lines/furnace
  • Emergency heat restoration
  • Heating oil lost in the release

How do you apply for insurance through PLIA?

  • No cost to register
  • Must complete and submit to PLIA the PLIA registration form
  • You must be registered with PLIA prior to the start of any accidental release in order for the clean-up to be covered
  • When PLIA receives the completed registration form, you will be mailed a confirmation. If confirmation is not received within 14 days, contact PLIA at 1-800-822-3905 or 360-407-0520

How to file a claim through PLIA

  • If a release is suspected or confirmed from your registered heating oil tank, PLIA must be contacted at 1-800-822-3905 or 360-407-0520 within 30 calendar days from the date the tank is disconnected from the furnace.
  • PLIA will investigate the claim, which may include taking photos of your property and the failed tank
  • Owner will hire an approved contractor to do the clean-up
  • All work must be approved by PLIA before the work starts

Who is the Policy through?

  • The Pollution Liability Insurance is covered through The Colony Insurance Company, please click the link to read about the WA Pollution Liability Policy

PLIA Insurance Coverage and Soil Sampling

How to get started, obtaining soil samples through a site assessment

  • The heating oil tank owner must select a service provider to perform the site assessment and is responsible for payment of all costs associated with soil sampling.
  • PLIA will interpret and provide a report to the owner with the results of the soil testing. Each report will provide the following information:
    • No apparent contamination that poses a threat to human health and the environment, no further action is required.
    • Minor contamination is present at the site and further site assessment or clean-up may be required.
    • Serious contamination is present, appears to pose a threat to human health and the environment, immediate corrective action is required.

What are the costs associated with the insurance through PLIA?

  • PLIA in Washington State insurance coverage is required to collect from the tank owner, requesting technical assistance, the costs incurred in providing assistance.
  • Costs incurred may include travel costs and expenses associated with monitoring site assessments, review of reports and analyses and preparation of written opinions and conclusions.
  • The Technical Assistance cost is $350.00 and must be paid in full prior to PLIA issuing its report of review and assessment of data.

Additional PLIA informational websites:

Heating Oil Technical Assistance Program (HOTAP) through PLIA Insurance Coverage

If a tank owner DOES NOT have insurance through PLIA, and it is determined that their tank is leaking, is there anything that PLIA can assist with?

Yes, even if the leaking tank is not covered by the Heating Oil Insurance Program through PLIA, a homeowner can request assistance on tank removal and environmental clean-up under the Heating Oil Technical Assistance Program (HOTAP).

How can HOTAP help my uninsured leaking UST?

Through HOTAP, PLIA can provide advice and technical assistance to owners of active or abandoned heating oil tanks if contamination resulting from a release is suspect. Advice and assistance may include:

  • Review of clean-up plans and reports
  • Interpretation of results from soil sampling through a site assessment or site check
  • An opinion letter from PLIA to the owner regarding the results of the testing

How does HOTAP work?

  • The owner of the UST will perform soil sampling, through a site check or site assessment. The owner of the tank may chose a service provider of their choice to perform any and all site work at the property. The tank owner is responsible for payment of all costs associated with soil sampling, site assessment and remediation.
  • Once sampling has been completed, the results of all testing must be forwarded to PLIA for review and evaluation. A copy of the service provider’s field notes must also be forwarded to PLIA.
  • If testing and remediation has been completed prior to PLIAs review, PLIA will consider providing a review and evaluation of the data. PLIA considers how recently the testing and remediation was completed and will consider the methods of the assessment prior to agreeing to review and evaluate the results.
  • Upon completion of review and evaluation, PLIA will provide an opinion letter informing the owner of the review and assessment of the data. The opinion letter from PLIA will provide the following opinions:
    • Property Further Action Opinion Letter– further remedial action is necessary at the property to clean-up contamination and remediation action is also necessary elsewhere at the site
    • Property No Further Action Opinion Letter – no further remedial action is necessary at the property to clean-up contamination at the site and that further remedial action is still necessary elsewhere at the site
    • Site Further Action Opinion Letter – further remedial action is necessary to clean-up contamination at the site
    • Site No Further Action Opinion Letter – no further remedial action is necessary to clean-up contamination at the site

What is the cost for HOTAP?

The fee for the Heating Oil Technical Assistance Program is $350.00. This fee covers the cost incurred in providing advice and assistance, expenses, review of reports and analysis, and preparation of written opinions and conclusions. The fee must be paid in full prior to PLIA issuing its report of review and assessment of data.

As a homeowner, I’ve discovered my tank has leaked but I’m not registered with PLIA.  I can now register in the HOTAP program to receive a review of the testing results and a letter from PLIA “closing the site”?  This is at a cost of $350?  All other out-of-pocket expenses; sampling, remediation, etc. come out of my pocket?

Yes, to all three questions.

My leaking tank is not registered with PLIA and I opt NOT to join HOTAP, as long as I’ve registered with Ecology I’m fine, correct?

No, the site still needs to be addressed and remediation is required. If a homeowner would like a letter stating the site has been closed through PLIA, they would need to enter into the HOTAP program.

I’m selling my home and the buyer has performed a tank search, and a tank has been found. Can I now register the abandoned tank with PLIA?

No, abandoned tanks CANNOT be registered with PLIA  in Washington State. Only active tanks are eligible for the program.

Soil Sampling in Washington

Soil Sampling in Washington State

Like Oregon, in order to determine if a tank is currently or has previously leaked, an investigative process needs to take place through soil sampling. Again, showcasing the differences between the two states, soil sampling in Washington State separates this function into either a Site Check or a Site Assessment.

Additionally, when the initial soil sampling takes place, to determine if contamination is present, the State of Washington requires a minimum of three (3) samples be taken. One sample must be taken from each end of the tank and the third sample must be taken from the middle of one side of the tank. This is unlike OR, in that, the DEQ requires only two (2) samples be taken from each end of the tank. The three (3) soil sampling requirements are the same as when decommissioning an underground storage tank in place or by removal, as long as no obvious contamination is discovered.

Soil Sampling in Washington

Soil Sampling in Washington – three (3) soil samples are taken in a Washington UST. A sample must be taken from each end of the tank and one from either side of the tank in the middle.

Site Check is the investigation of an underground storage tank site for the presence of a release when evidence indicates that a release may have occurred, but existence of such a release has not been confirmed. Once the existence of a release has been confirmed, the release shall be reported to the State of Washington Department of Ecology.

Examples for a site check include:

  • Environmental contamination may be suspected and can include, but not limited to, constituents in soils, basement, groundwater and/or surface waters.
  • If environmental contamination is discovered off site and a UST is a suspected source of the release, the department may require a site check to confirm whether the UST system is the source of the release.

Site Assessment is an investigation to determine if a release has occurred: it may be required as part of a routine closure, change-in-service, and temporary closure extension, or as directed by the Department of Ecology.

  • For the purpose of a real estate transaction or to determine the state of an in-use or abandoned underground storage tank, a site assessment is conducted.
  • If an UST System is being decommissioned in-place or removed, a site assessment must be conducted after the UST system is emptied and cleaned and all liquid and accumulated sludge has been removed. While removed, a site assessment must be conducted following tank removal.
  • If a UST system was permanently closed or abandoned before December 22, 1988 and the department determines that suspected releases from the UST system may pose a current or potential threat to human health or the environment, the department may require a site assessment to be conducted. If an abandoned tank contains product, a site assessment is required.
  • Owner/operator applies to the department to extend a temporary closure of an UST system beyond 12 months, a site assessment must be completed before the application extension will be considered.

Leaking Soil Samples in Washington State

Contamination has been verified through soil sampling, within 24 hours the leak must be reported to the Department of Ecology. Department of Ecology reporting can either be completed through contacting the state directly or through their online system.  Once the contamination submission has been received by the State, an ERTS number will be given to the person who reported the leak. The ERTS number will also be forwarded to PLIA, as PLIA has an agreement with Ecology to evaluate the adequacy of any independent clean-up action performed by the requirements in the Model Toxics Control Act.

PLIA, can also provide homeowners the option of insuring their underground storage tanks before they leak, as well as helping after a leak has been discovered. Please see detailed information on our PLIA informational page.

Important EcoTech Documents

For additional information regarding our service lines, we have attached supplementary documents for your reference.

Heating Oil Tanks

Radon Mitigation

Seismic Retrofits

Septic Tanks & Cesspools

UST Soil Sampling and Tank Inspection

Soil Sampling and Tank Inspection Common Questions

A UST Soil Sampling and Tank Inspection is almost identical to a Soil Sample.  The major difference between the two is that besides sampling between 12″ to 24″ beneath the bottom of the tank, the tank itself is opened up and inspected for its contents.

Why would a Tank Inspection be needed?

There are a couple different reasons that it is required to include the additional service of the Tank Inspection to the Soil Sampling, here are a few examples of why that would be needed:

  • During a tank search an underground storage tank was found, yet the technician was unable to get the fill cap off to determine its contents.  The fill cap may be inaccessible due to the cap being covered over, rusted shut or the fill pipe itself is completely filled and the contents of the tank can not be determined.
UST Soil Sampling and Tank Inspection

UST Soil Sampling and Tank Inspection – Tank found under concrete patio, fill cap inaccessible due to patio pavers.

  • The tank had been decommissioned previously but never registered with the DEQ.  In order for the underground storage tank to be registered with the DEQ, the soil beneath the tank needs to be sampled and the contents of the tank need to be verified.

The Tank Inspection

How do you perform a Tank Inspection?

After the tank has been located and marked out for soil sampling, our technicians will dig down to the top of the tank, cut open the tank and verify the contents.

Once the tank has been opened up, what is the best case scenario?

What we always hope for is clean soil samples and a properly decommissioned tank.  With samples below the DEQ reporting level of 50 PPM and a tank filled with clean material, the UST can then be registered with the DEQ.

UST Soil Sampling and Tank Inspection

UST Soil Sampling and Tank Inspection – Properly decommissioned tank filled with a concrete slurry.

What if the tank has been decommissioned with a proper fill material, but not filled all the way to the top of the tank, and the soil samples come back below the DEQ reporting level?

As long as the samples come in below the DEQ reporting level of 50 PPM, the remaining gap can be filled with additional fill material to ensure the tank has been decommissioned properly.  Once the tank has been certified as decommissioned, it can now be registered with the DEQ.

UST Soil Sampling and Tank Inspection

UST Soil Sampling and Tank Inspection – Tank inspection with gap in the proper fill material, tank will be filled with additional fill material and can then be registered with the DEQ

 

What are additional circumstances that are encountered with Tank Inspections?

Fill Material

  • Gap in proper fill material, below reporting level of 50 PPM:  Fill void with additional fill material and the tank can then be registered with the DEQ.
  • Proper fill material, leaking tank above 50 PPM: Tank has been decommissioned properly, remediation is required to determine that the leak has been contained. Once the clean-up is completed, the tank can then be registered with the DEQ.
  • Improper fill material: Improper fill material needs to be removed and the tank re-decommissioned. Additionally, if the tank is leaking above 50 PPM, remediation will need to take place to clean-up the site. Once the new decommissioning is completed, the tank can then be registered with the DEQ.

Water

  • Water in gap of the proper fill material, below reporting level of 50 PPM: Pump water out of the void and fill gap with additional fill material. Tank can now be registered with the DEQ.
  • Water completely fills the tank: Regardless of the fill material, everything within the tank needs to be pumped out and replaced with new fill material. Additionally, if the tank is leaking above 50 PPM, remediation will need to take place to clean-up the site. Once the new decommissioning is completed, the tank can then be registered with the DEQ.
UST Soil Sampling and Tank Inspection

UST Soil Sampling and Tank Inspection – Liquid found inside of opened tank

  • Tank is opened and it is empty.  If the samples come in below 50 PPM, the tank can be decommissioned and registered with the DEQ.  If the samples come in above 50 PPM, the tank can be decommissioned with remediation and then registered with DEQ
UST Soil Sampling and Tank Inspection

UST Soil Sampling and Tank Inspection – Empty tank discovered during a Tank Inspection.

UST Tank Search for Buyers

UST Tank Search for Buyers – Common Questions

As a Buyer, searching for an underground storage tank has become integrated as part of the inspection period. These are some of the most common questions that we are asked regarding the tank inspection process and why it is important to protect yourself before you buy.

What is an underground storage tank (UST)?

Homes, apartments, farms and some businesses that are currently or were previously heated using diesel heating oil, used an underground storage tank (UST) to store the heating oil. The USTs were usually buried in the yard, and copper tubing or steel piping was installed to deliver the diesel from the tank to the furnace. In Oregon, an estimated 100,000 USTs were installed for home heating.

UST Tank Search for Buyers

UST Tank Search for Buyers – Rendition of an underground storage tank (UST) buried in a yard, with the supply lines running into the home.

Why should I worry about a UST?

Underground storage tanks are made of steel, which are selected for their strength, not for their corrosion resistance. Therefore steel USTs rust through, given enough time. Like a roof, steel storage tanks have a life of about 25 years, and like a roof it is cheaper to replace the tank or convert to another heat source before it leaks and the damage is done.

UST Tank Search for Buyers

UST Tank Search for Buyers – Removed tank with numerous holes, this allows the diesel fuel to leak into the surrounding soil.

Performing the UST tank search

How do you find an abandoned UST?

The best way to determine if there is an abandoned oil tank on the property, is to conduct a tank search.

How do you perform a tank search?

EcoTech first will perform a Tank Background Search, this entails a detailed examination of state and local databases, as applicable. Besides years of on-the-job experience, our technician conducts a visual inspection for product lines and fill or vent pipes, utilizes metal detectors and Terra, our specially trained Petroleum Detection K-9.

UST Tank Search for Buyers

UST Tank Search for Buyers – Terra finds a tank

UST Tank Search for Buyers

UST Tank Search for Buyers – The UST Terra found during the tank search, is now marked out for sampling.

What if there is an in-service tank already on the property, should I still do a tank search?

EcoTech highly recommends doing a tank search to rule out any additional tanks that may or may not be on the property. On average our tank searches cost $99.00, during the inspection period this is money well invested. Not only does a tank search give you peace of mind that there are no additional tanks on the property. It can also save you from years of worry or money spent if there is indeed an additional leaking tank on the property, which you now own and are responsible for cleaning up.

 

UST Tank Search for Sellers

UST Tank Search for Sellers – Common Questions

As a homeowner, you may be thinking about or are preparing to put your home up for sale. For some homeowners, you may want to perform a tank search to prepare yourself for any unforeseen surprises during the home inspection period. On the other hand, you may know that there is a tank on your property that was decommissioned and never registered with the DEQ or that there is an abandoned oil tank, but you don’t know where. These are some of the most common questions that we are asked regarding the tank inspection process and important information you should know before you sell.

What is an underground storage tank (UST)?

Homes, apartments, farms and some businesses that are currently or were previously heated using diesel heating oil, used an underground storage tank (UST) to store the heating oil. The USTs were usually buried in the yard, and copper tubing or steel piping was installed to deliver the diesel from the tank to the furnace. In Oregon, an estimated 100,000 USTs were installed for home heating.

UST Tank Search for Sellers

UST Tank Search for Sellers – Rendition of an underground storage tank (UST) buried in a yard, with the supply lines running into the home.

Why should I worry about an UST?

Underground storage tanks are made of steel, which are selected for their strength, not for their corrosion resistance. Therefore steel USTs rust through, given enough time. Like a roof, steel storage tanks have a life of about 25 years, and like a roof it is cheaper to replace the tank or convert to another heat source before it leaks and the damage is done.

UST Tank Search for Sellers

UST Tank Search for Sellers – Shot from interior of tank, many small holes in the UST, which will cause diesel fuel to leak into the surrounding soil.

Performing the UST tank search

How do you find an abandoned UST?

The best way to determine if there is an abandoned oil tank on the property, is to conduct a tank search. As the homeowner, you may also look for these tell-tale signs of an abandoned oil tank:

  • An Oil Fill Pipe, these are usually close to the ground and near where the furnace is located in your home.  The lid itself will usually indicate OIL in the center of the cap.
UST Tank Search for Sellers

UST Tank Search for Sellers – Fill pipes can appear in multiple places within a property, in a walkway, grass, driveway, and even under a deck are a few examples.

  • A Vent Pipe, this is usually attached to the home, about two to eight feet up the side of the house and it is 1.25 to 1.5 inches in diameter with a small vent cap on it.

 

UST Tank Search for Sellers

UST Tank Search for Sellers – 4 different types of vents and their locations.  Fill vents can come in different sizes, colors, and may be placed at varying sections of the home.

  • Product lines, may be found sticking out of the ground in the yard, in a crawlspace or basement floor.  Product lines may still be attached to a basement or crawlspace wall next to water or gas pipes.
UST Tank Search for Sellers

UST Tank Search for Sellers – Crimped product lines may appear as random pipes sticking out of a basement floor or out of the dirt near the home in the yard. A product line may also appear running up a wall in a basement or crawlspace, like the far right picture (the thin line on the right)

  • Patching, will be present on a basement floor, it appears as though a pipe has been removed and covered with concrete.  The patching may appear as a bad “patch job” with numerous bumps and grooves.
UST Tank Search for Sellers

UST Tank Search for Sellers – Patching on a basement floor.

How do you perform a tank search?

EcoTech first will perform a Tank Background Search, this entails a detailed examination of state and local databases, as applicable. Besides years of on-the-job experience, our technician conducts a visual inspection for product lines and fill or vent pipes, utilizes metal detectors and Terra, our specially trained Petroleum Detection K-9.

UST Tank Search for Sellers

UST Tank Search for Sellers – Terra finds a tank within a planter.

UST Tank Search for Sellers

UST Tank Search for Sellers – The tank that Terra found is marked out. The purple arrow indicates where the vent pipe has been removed from the siding. The red arrows indicate the length of the tank, marked with orange flags as well as the tip of the measuring tape.

 

UST Soil Sampling

UST Soil Sampling Common Questions

Whether a tank search has resulted in a UST being discovered or if there is an in-service tank on the property, EcoTech highly recommends soil sampling be completed around the tank.

If you are a buyer, it is imperative for you to obtain soil samples on the underground storage tank, as once you purchase the property, you have now purchased the UST and if it is leaking, are now responsible for the clean-up.

If you are a seller or a homeowner thinking about selling, and you know you have an UST on your property, preemptive soil samples will allow you prepare for pre-inspection complications.

For more information on underground storage tanks and real estate transactions, please see the DEQ Buying or Selling guide for helpful tips DEQs Buying or Selling a Home with a UST

What if a UST is found?

Soil Samples are recommended. Per Oregon DEQ, the best way to determine if a UST has leaked, is to have soil samples collected from under each end of the tank and have the samples analyzed for diesel and heavy oil. Each sample should be analyzed at an independent laboratory that is DEQ certified.

UST Soil Sampling

UST Soil Sampling – Rendition of technician taking soil samples 12-24″ beneath an underground storage tank.

UST Soil Sampling

UST Soil Sampling – Sampling tubes filled with soil from around an underground storage tank. The soil is then placed in a jar and sent to the lab for testing.

There is an in-service tank, should I perform soil samples?

As a prospective buyer, it is essential to test a tank before purchasing the property to determine if it has leaked or is currently leaking. The current property owner is responsible for any necessary contamination clean-up from a leaking underground storage tank. Purchasing a property without testing a tank makes you, as the new property owner, liable for a prior or currently leaking UST.

I’m selling my home and the buyer has found a tank, what are the next steps for me?

EcoTech recommends that you decommission the tank and register it with DEQ. Although, through our experience, buyers and their agents will require at a minimum proof of clean soil samples.

Types of Soil Samples

What are the type of UST soil samples? 

There are three different categories that sample results can be placed into:

Non-Detect (ND)

In-service tank: samples that were analyzed have come back as non-detect and no further tests are necessary. EcoTech does recommend that the decades old tank be decommissioned and a new heat source chosen, as soon as it is practical, before the tank does leak.

Out-of-service tanks: samples that were analyzed have come back as non-detect and no further tests are necessary. EcoTech does recommend that the out-of-service tank be decommissioned within 90 days of the soil samples and registered with DEQ.

*For both the in-service and out-of-service non-detect samples that were taken from each end of the UST, does not rule out the possibility of contamination underneath the soils of the tank, that is why EcoTech recommends decommissioning of the UST.*

50 PPM (parts per million) or less

In-service tank: samples that were analyzed indicate that a leak is present. Although this is a low detection and it is not reportable to DEQ, it indicates a leak has started and should be a concern. EcoTech highly recommends that the tank be taken out-of-service and decommissioned and registered with the DEQ.

Out-of-service tank: samples that were analyzed indicate that a leak is present. Although this is a low detection and it is not reportable to DEQ, it indicates a leak has started and should be a concern. EcoTech recommends that the out-of-service tank be decommissioned and registered with DEQ.

50.1 PPM or Greater

In-service or out-of-service tanks: “The OR DEQ requires that any site where a soil sample analysis shows petroleum concentrations of 50 PPM or greater, must be reported to the DEQ within 72 hours. Remediation will be determined based on the extent of the contamination.” Simply put, the tank is leaking above the reporting limit, EcoTech is required to report the leak to the DEQ, corrective action is now needed to clean-up the site.

Underground Storage Tank or UST Decommissioning

Underground Storage Tank or UST Decommissioning Common Questions

 

What does it mean to decommission a UST?

The most generic term, is to take the tank out of service.  Underground Storage Tank or UST decommissioning is accomplished by ensuring the tank has been properly cleaned and removed or completely filled with an inert material. The inert material consists either of perlite, a sand-like material or slurry, concrete.

If the tank is to be registered with DEQ, two soil samples will be taken from inside the bottom of the tank, after being pumped and cleaned, and analyzed for diesel and heavy oil. Each sample needs to be analyzed at an independent laboratory that is DEQ certified.

If the samples come back as non-detected, the tank can be then registered with the DEQ.

If the samples come back above the DEQ reporting limit (50.1 PPM), remediation will need to take place and once the corrective action has been completed, the tank will be registered with DEQ.  If soil remediation is need, please see our Decommissioning via Heating Oil Contaminated Soil Clean-Up page.

Why should homeowners decommission their UST and register it with the DEQ

I’ve emptied my tank of oil years ago and don’t use it any more, doesn’t that mean it is decommissioned?

No, in order to decommission the tank you will need to take the tank permanently out of service. This is completed by either removing the tank or filling it in place with an inert material.

Can I decommission my own UST?

According to the DEQ, it is legal for a homeowner to decommission their own UST, assuming that you perform the work yourself and comply with all applicable local, state and federal rules. Before deciding to decommission your own tank, the DEQ highly recommends that you read the DEQ Cleanup Guidance for Homeowners to understand the full scope of work involved in completing a decommissioning project. DEQ Decommissioning Guide for Homeowners

I’m selling my home and have switched over to gas years ago, should I decommission my tank?

It is not a requirement to decommission your tank before selling your home. Unfortunately in this highly active real estate market, many buyers will require at a minimum, proof of recent clean soil samples. Additionally, you will need to provide the buyer with documentation that the tank has been pumped of all of its contents. DEQ Out of Service Tank Requirements

Do I have to decommission my UST?

No, it is not a requirement to decommission your tank once you stop using it.  However, if you are thinking about selling your home, most buyers and their agents request decommissioning and registration before closing. Per DEQ, you will need to ensure that the tank has been emptied of oil and you will need to provide that documentation to the new buyer.  DEQ Requirements for Tanks No Longer in Use

Do I have to register my UST?

It is not required by DEQ to register the tank, but it is highly recommended. However, if you are decommissioning the tank as part of the sale of the home, this is usually a prerequisite prior to closing.

Why should I register my UST?

There are three primary benefits of registering the UST decommissioning with the DEQ:

  1. The decommissioning becomes public record.  So, even if your copy of the paperwork is misplaced or the name of the contractor that performed the work is forgotten, the record remains in the DEQ files.
  2. When the DEQ changes any of their rules (i.e. reporting limits, remediation guidelines, etc.), previously closed or registered tanks are “grandfathered” in.  Tanks that were decommissioned and not registered are subject to the new rules.  For example, over time the DEQ required the locations of soil sampling to change.  Meaning a previously unregistered decommissioned tank, would need to obtain additional soil samples to bring the tank up to the new DEQ sampling requirements.
  3. Most buyers are requiring DEQ registration because they don’t want to deal with future DEQ rule changes.  Even if you don’t plan to sell the property any time soon, registering the tank now can prevent added costs prior to and during a future sale.

I have a tank that was decommissioned years ago, but never registered with the DEQ, how do I now get it registered?

In order to establish if the tank has been decommissioned properly, soil samples and a tank inspection would be required. Soil samples need to be taken in order to determine if the tank had leaked prior to decommissioning. A tank inspection is necessary to establish if the tank has been decommissioned properly.

If the soil samples are clean and the tank has been decommissioned properly, the tank then can be registered with the DEQ.

USTs that have been Decommissioned inproperly

What happens if it isn’t decommissioned properly?

There could be a couple of different reasons a tank has not been decommissioned properly.  There may be inadequate or contaminated fill material, water within the tank or simply something that shouldn’t be in the tank (i.e. paint cans, large rocks, etc.).  Besides what is inside the tank, the soil samples will need to be taken into consideration to allow the tank to be certified as decommissioned to register with the DEQ.

  • Fill Material:  If the fill material within the tank is not an approved by the DEQ, that material will need to be removed and the tank will be re-decommissioned to DEQ standards for certification.  The same reasoning will go with contaminated fill material, even if it is DEQ approved material.  The contaminated material will need to be removed and the tank will need to be re-decommissioned to DEQ standards for certification.
  • Water:  If there is water within the tank, all water will be pumped out of the tank and re-decommissioned in order to certify with the DEQ.
  • Unconventional Items:  From time to time, items are found within a tank that should NOT be there.  Items such as large boulders, paint cans, trash cans and even tires have been discovered within a tank.  If this situation does arise, all items will need to be removed and disposed of in a landfill and the tank will need to be decommissioned.
Underground Storage Tank or UST Decommissioning

Underground Storage Tank or UST Decommissioning – Concrete, pain cans and water found within a tank.

What exactly do you do to decommission a tank?

In order to decommission an underground storage tank, we need to follow some step-by-step processes to ensure that we are able to take soil samples and inspect the tank properly.  This is the process by which EcoTech begins each in-place underground storage tank decommissioning project:

1.  We dig down, expose the tank and cut it open.

Underground Storage Tank or UST Decommissioning

Underground Storage Tank or UST Decommissioning – Exposed tank top.

2.  All tank contents are removed; heating oil, residual liquids, sludge.

3.  Clean and dry the tank interior and inspect it for holes.

Underground Storage Tank or UST Decommissioning

Underground Storage Tank or UST Decommissioning – Holes from within a tank.

4.  Collect soil samples from the inside and through the bottom of the tank.

Underground Storage Tank or UST Decommissioning

Underground Storage Tank or UST Decommissioning – The technicians cut two holes in the bottom of the tank to expose the soil underneath, two samples are then “grabbed” underneath the tank bottom.

5.  Soil Samples are submitted to the lab the same day for analysis, with results typically back the next business day by noon.

6.  Pending favorable laboratory results (less than 50 PPM), the tank can be backfilled with perlite or slurry.

***If soil sample results come in above the 50 PPM, remediation would be required to bring the site up to DEQ requirements.  (Please see our Heating Oil Contaminated Soil Clean-Up section for additional information on remediation Clean-Up with Decommissioning).

Underground Storage Tank or UST Decommissioning

Underground Storage Tank or UST Decommissioning – Tank filled with slurry.

7.  After the tank has been filled, the tank is then covered back over with the previous landscape (i.e. grass, concrete, dirt, etc.).